Wayne A. Mackay
Head of the Department
316 Plant Sciences Building
479-575-2603

Department of Horticulture Website

The Department of Horticulture offers a broad, science-based degree with comprehensive and technical training: Horticulture, Landscape and Turf Sciences (HLTS).

Horticulture, landscape, and turf management involves selection, production, management, marketing, use, and research of ornamental crops (shrubs, trees, flowers, and turf), edible crops (herbs, vegetables, and fruits) and turf grasses for the economic, nutritional, aesthetic and recreational well-being of society. The major provides education and training in basic and applied sciences, arts and humanities, communication, and business and economics to provide an understanding of the underlying principles in plant growth and development and use of new technologies, and the operation of a horticultural enterprise. In consultation with an academic adviser and mentor, students may individually focus their academic programs through required and elective courses to focus training in specialized areas such as production, greenhouse and floriculture sciences, turfgrass management, golf course management, nursery production and management, edible crop production, pest management, sales and support services, education and training, and horticultural consulting. An internship in the industry is required to gain practical, hands-on experience.

Job opportunities for horticulturists include horticulture crop production and management, horticulture merchandising and business, consulting, inspection, research, teaching, Extension, communications, allied industries serving horticultural producers, journalism, and developing private business. Students who specialize in landscape and aspects of ornamental horticulture will be prepared for careers in the landscape service industry, landscape nurseries, landscape design firms, private and public gardens, and public agencies such as parks and recreation. Job opportunities for students studying turfgrass management include golf course superintendent, sports field manager, turfgrass science companies, seed or sod production, commercial landscape turfgrass management, research, sales, teaching, or private consulting. Advanced study may be required for some careers.

Requirements for a Major in Horticulture, Landscape and Turf Sciences (HLTS)

The HLTS major will consist of 120 hours to include the following courses that meet the state minimum core and discipline specific general education requirements:

(Course work that meets state minimum core requirements is in bold.)

Communications6
Composition I (ACTS Equivalency = ENGL 1013)
Composition II (ACTS Equivalency = ENGL 1023)
U.S. History and Government3
History of the American People to 1877 (ACTS Equivalency = HIST 2113)
History of the American People, 1877 to Present (ACTS Equivalency = HIST 2123)
American National Government (ACTS Equivalency = PLSC 2003)
Mathematics 3-4
College Algebra (ACTS Equivalency = MATH 1103) (or higher level math)
Physical and Biological Sciences12-16
Principles of Biology (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 1014 Lecture)
and Principles of Biology Laboratory (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 1014 Lab)
Organic Physiological Chemistry (ACTS Equivalency = CHEM 1224 Lecture)
and Organic Physiological Chemistry Laboratory (ACTS Equivalency = CHEM 1224 Lab)
Select from one Chemistry group:
Fundamentals of Chemistry (ACTS Equivalency = CHEM 1214 Lecture)
and Fundamentals of Chemistry Laboratory (ACTS Equivalency = CHEM 1214 Lab)
OR
University Chemistry I (ACTS Equivalency = CHEM 1414 Lecture)
and University Chemistry I Laboratory (ACTS Equivalency = CHEM 1414 Lab)
AND
University Chemistry II (ACTS Equivalency = CHEM 1424 Lecture)
and University Chemistry II Laboratory (ACTS Equivalency = CHEM 1424 Lab)
Fine Arts and Humanities (6 hours)6-8
Fine Arts Core Course (Select at least 3 hours from Fine Arts state minimum core)
Humanities Core Course (Select at least 3 hours from Humanities state minimum core)
Social Sciences 9
Select 9 hours from Social Science state minimum core including at least one of the following:
Principles of Agricultural Microeconomics
Principles of Agricultural Macroeconomics
Principles of Macroeconomics (ACTS Equivalency = ECON 2103)
Principles of Microeconomics (ACTS Equivalency = ECON 2203)
Basic Economics: Theory and Practice
HLTS Core Requirements (30-31 hours)
UNIV 1001University Perspectives1
COMM 1313Public Speaking (ACTS Equivalency = SPCH 1003)3
Communication Intensive Elective (3 hours - see advisor for approved list of courses)3
CSES 2203
CSES 2201L
Soil Science
and Soil Science Laboratory
4
HORT 2003Principles of Horticulture (with lab component)3
HORT 2101Horticultural Career Development1
HORT 4403Plant Propagation (with lab component)3
HORT 4413Horticulture Physiology3
HORT 462VHorticulture, Landscape, Turf Sciences Internship Experience1
HORT 472VHorticulture, Landscape, Turf Sciences Internship Assessment2
Select two of the following:6-7
Principles of Weed Control
Introduction to Entomology
Principles of Plant Pathology
Horticulture Electives18
Select 18 hours from the following:
Introduction to Floral Design
Introduction to Turfgrass Management
Woody Landscape Plants (with lab component)
Herbaceous and Indoor Plant Materials (with lab component)
International Horticulture
Sustainable Landscape Practices
Vegetable Crops
Turfgrass Management (with lab component)
Sustainable and Organic Horticulture
Professional Landscape Installation and Construction
Professional Landscape Management
Fruit Production Science and Technology (with lab component)
Sustainable Nursery Production
Practical Landscape Planning
Greenhouse Management and Controlled Environment Horticulture
Greenhouse Management and Controlled Environment Horticulture Laboratory
Greenhouse Crops Production
Greenhouse Crops Production Laboratory
Golf and Sports Turf Management (with lab component)
Rootzone Management for Golf and Sports Turf
Golf Course Operations
Turf Best Management Practices
Special Problems
Special Topics in Horticulture, Turf or Landscape
Discipline-Related Electives12-13
Select at least 12 hours from the following:
Small Power Units/Turf Equipment
and Small Power Units/Turf Equipment Laboratory
Surveying in Agriculture and Forestry
Irrigation (with lab component)
Principles of Genetics
Plants, People and You
Special Problems
Special Topics in Horticulture, Turf or Landscape
Sustainable Design and Construction: Remediation and Plants on Structure
Design Visualization, Inquiry and Communications
Physics and Human Affairs
and Physics and Human Affairs Laboratory (or higher level)
WCOB (up to 9 hours)
or any AGEC, AGME, BIOL, CHEM, CSES, ENSC, ENTO, FDSC, HORT, PLPA class not taken in any other elective group.
General Electives 12-21
Total Hours120

Horticulture, Landscape and Turf Sciences B.S.A.

Nine-Semester Degree Plan

Students wishing to follow the degree plan should see the Eight-Semester Degree Policy for university requirements of the program.

First YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
UNIV 1001 University Perspectives1    
MATH 1203 College Algebra (ACTS Equivalency = MATH 1103) (or higher level math)3-4    
ENGL 1013 Composition I (ACTS Equivalency = ENGL 1013)3    
BIOL 1543 Principles of Biology (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 1014 Lecture)
& BIOL 1541L Principles of Biology Laboratory (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 1014 Lab)
4    
History Core Elective3    
ENGL 1023 Composition II (ACTS Equivalency = ENGL 1023)  3  
HORT 2003 Principles of Horticulture  3  
Fine Arts state minimum core (Suggest LARC 1003 Basic Course in the Arts: The American Landscape)  3  
Social Science state minimum core   3  
COMM 1313 Public Speaking (ACTS Equivalency = SPCH 1003)  3  
Year Total: 14 15  
 
Second YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
CHEM 1073 Fundamentals of Chemistry (ACTS Equivalency = CHEM 1214 Lecture)
& CHEM 1071L Fundamentals of Chemistry Laboratory (ACTS Equivalency = CHEM 1214 Lab)
4    
Communication Intensive Class3    
Horticulture Electives6    
Discipline-related Elective3    
Humanities state minimum core (Suggest PHIL 2003 Intro to Philosophy)  3-4  
HORT 4413 Horticulture Physiology  3  
Discipline-related Elective  3  
HORT 2101 Horticultural Career Development  1  
General Electives  4  
Year Total: 16 14  
 
Third YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
CSES 2203 Soil Science
& CSES 2201L Soil Science Laboratory
4    
Pest Management Elective3-4    
Horticulture Elective3    
Social Sciences state minimum core elective3    
Discipline-Related Elective3    
CHEM 2613 Organic Physiological Chemistry (ACTS Equivalency = CHEM 1224 Lecture)
& CHEM 2611L Organic Physiological Chemistry Laboratory (ACTS Equivalency = CHEM 1224 Lab)
  4  
Discipline-Related Elective  3-4  
HORT 4403 Plant Propagation  3  
Horticulture Elective  3  
HORT 462V Horticulture, Landscape, Turf Sciences Internship Experience    1
Year Total: 16 13 1
 
Fourth YearUnits
FallSpringSummer
Horticulture Elective3    
HORT 472V Horticulture, Landscape, Turf Sciences Internship Assessment2    
Pest Management Elective3-4    
General Electives1-9    
Social Science state minimum core elective  3  
Horticulture Elective  3  
General Electives  7-8  
Year Total: 17 14  
 
Total Units in Sequence:   120

Minor in Horticulture (HORT-M)

The Horticulture minor is only available to students outside the Horticulture, Landscape and Turfgrass Sciences (HLTS) major.  The minor will consist of 18 hours to include:

HORT 2003Principles of Horticulture3
HORT 4403Plant Propagation3
Select a minimum of 9 hours from the following:9-11
Introduction to Turfgrass Management
Vegetable Crops
Special Problems
Fruit Production Science and Technology
Sustainable Nursery Production
Greenhouse Management and Controlled Environment Horticulture
and Greenhouse Management and Controlled Environment Horticulture Laboratory
Greenhouse Crops Production
and Greenhouse Crops Production Laboratory
Select one of the following:3
Woody Landscape Plants
Herbaceous and Indoor Plant Materials
Total Hours18

Minor in Landscape Horticulture (LHRT-M)

The Landscape Horticulture minor is only available to students outside the Horticulture, Landscape and Turfgrass Sciences (HLTS) major. The minor will consist of 18 hours to include:

HORT 2003Principles of Horticulture3
HORT 4043Professional Landscape Management3
Select 3 hours from the following:3
Practical Landscape Planning
LARC Studio Course
Select one of the following:3
Woody Landscape Plants
Herbaceous and Indoor Plant Materials
Select 6-8 hours from the following:6-8
Introduction to Turfgrass Management
Woody Landscape Plants
Herbaceous and Indoor Plant Materials
Turfgrass Management
Special Problems
Professional Landscape Installation and Construction
Plant Propagation
Sustainable Nursery Production
Greenhouse Management and Controlled Environment Horticulture
and Greenhouse Management and Controlled Environment Horticulture Laboratory
Greenhouse Crops Production
and Greenhouse Crops Production Laboratory
Sustainable Design and Construction: Material and Methods of Assembly
Total Hours18

Minor in Turf Management (TURF-M)

The Turf Management minor is only available to students outside the Horticulture, Landscape and Turfgrass Sciences (HLTS) major.  The Turf Management minor is comprised of 18 to 20 hours to include the following:

HORT 2303Introduction to Turfgrass Management3
HORT 3403Turfgrass Management (with lab component)3
Select one of the following:3
Golf and Sports Turf Management (with lab component)
Rootzone Management for Golf and Sports Turf (with lab component)
Select 3 hours from the following:3-4
Introduction to Entomology (with lab component)
Principles of Plant Pathology
and Principles of Plant Pathology Laboratory
Select two of the following:6-8
Irrigation
Small Power Units/Turf Equipment
and Small Power Units/Turf Equipment Laboratory
Soil Science
and Soil Science Laboratory
Introduction to Entomology (with lab component)
Principles of Plant Pathology
and Principles of Plant Pathology Laboratory
Golf and Sports Turf Management (with lab component)
Rootzone Management for Golf and Sports Turf (with lab component)
Woody Landscape Plants (with lab component)
Professional Landscape Installation and Construction
Professional Landscape Management
Total Hours18-20

Faculty

Cato, Aaron J., Ph.D. (University of Arkansas), M.S. (Kansas State University), B.S. (Arkansas State University), Assistant Professor, 2019.
Clark, John R., Ph.D. (University of Arkansas), M.S., B.S. (Mississippi State University), Distinguished Professor, 1983.
Garcia, M. Elena, Ph.D., M.S. (University of Arkansas), B.A. (University of Arkansas at Little Rock), Professor, 2005.
Karcher, Douglas Edward, Ph.D., M.S. (Michigan State University), B.S. (The Ohio State University), Professor, 2000.
Lee, Jacquelyn A., Ph.D., M.S. (University of Arkansas), B.S. (Arkansas Technical University), Associate Professor, 2016.
Mackay, Wayne A., Ph.D. (University of Maryland), M.S. (University of Delaware), B.S. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), Professor, 2014.
McDonald, Garry Vernon, Ph.D., M.S., B.S.A. (Texas A&M University), Clinical Assistant Professor, 2016.
McWhirt, Amanda L., Ph.D. (North Carolina State University), M.S. (Louisiana State University), B.S. (Tarleton State University), Assistant Professor, 2016.
Richardson, Mike, Ph.D. (University of Georgia), M.S. (Louisiana State University), B.S. (Louisiana Tech University), Professor, 1998.
Robbins, James A., Ph.D. (University of California-Davis), M.S. (University of Georgia), B.S. (University of Wisconsin), Professor, 1998.
Rom, Curt R., Ph.D., M.S. (The Ohio State University), B.S. (University of Arkansas), University Professor, 1989.
Shi, Ainong, Ph.D. (North Carolina State University), M.S. (Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences), B.S. (Zhejiang University), Assistant Professor, 2013.
Worthington, Margaret L., Ph.D. (North Carolina State University), M.S. (University of California-Davis), B.S. (Duke University), Assistant Professor, 2016.

Courses

HORT 1103. Plants, People and You. 3 Hours.

Plants, People and You is a course designed to introduce students to the world of horticulture, with an emphasis on how plants can be used for food, fun, health, economic value or environmental contribution. (Typically offered: Fall)

HORT 1303. Introduction to Floral Design. 3 Hours.

Students in this introductory class in Floral Design will learn basic design elements such as line, form, mass, balance, texture and color as used in floral art. Students will gain an appreciation of the various types and species of flowers and foliage used in various floral arrangements such as bouquets and centerpieces. In addition, students will learn common post-harvest handling techniques of fresh cut floral plant material to prolong vase-life from the purchasing stage to the final design. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Spring)

HORT 2003. Principles of Horticulture. 3 Hours.

A course introducing students to the biological and technologies underlying the propagation, production, handling and use of horticultural crops, turf and landscape plants. Students will be introduced to the various disciplines and commodities of horticulture. The use of plants for the benefit of humankind because of their aesthetic and nutritional value will be explored. Previous instruction in Plant Science, Plant Biology, or general Botany is strongly encouraged. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Spring)

HORT 2101. Horticultural Career Development. 1 Hour.

A course which presents concepts necessary for developing a career and becoming a professional in horticulture industries or businesses. Concepts of goal setting, effective communication and interpersonal skills, behaviors and performance, portfolio and resume, development and job hunting skills will be presented. (Typically offered: Spring)

HORT 2303. Introduction to Turfgrass Management. 3 Hours.

An introductory course in turfgrass management emphasizing turfgrass growth, adaptation, and management. Methods for establishment, fertilization, mowing, cultivation, irrigation, and pest management are presented, and their impact on culture of lawns, golf courses, athletic fields, and other managed turf areas discussed. (Typically offered: Fall)

HORT 3103. Woody Landscape Plants. 3 Hours.

Identification, climatic adaptation and landscape design values of woody ornamental trees, shrubs and vines. Lecture 2 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Fall)

HORT 3113. Herbaceous and Indoor Plant Materials. 3 Hours.

Identification, culture, and use of annuals, perennials in landscapes and foliage plants in interiors. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 2 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

HORT 3123. International Horticulture. 3 Hours.

Considerable globalization of agriculture has occurred over the past several decades, especially in the area of horticultural crops. This course provides a base of knowledge of the international horticulture industry focusing on principles and practices of development and trade of horticultural crops. (Typically offered: Spring)

HORT 3203. Sustainable Landscape Practices. 3 Hours.

New methods of landscape management are required to restore or protect the ecological services provided by developed landscapes. This course is focused on methods for sustainable land management. Included as part of the curriculum is a survey of sustainable management as it applies to site resources, including water, nutrients, energy and biodiversity. Retrofitting existing development, organic lawn, tree, and shrub care, successional landscapes, permaculture, sustainable material selection, and best available equipment will be covered in depth. Prerequisite: HORT 2003. (Typically offered: Fall)

HORT 3303. Vegetable Crops. 3 Hours.

General course in vegetable crops with attention to the principles underlying methods of production and handling related to yields and quality of the products. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 2 hours per week. Prerequisite: HORT 2003 and CSES 2203. (Typically offered: Irregular)

HORT 3403. Turfgrass Management. 3 Hours.

Cultural and management practices of commercial and residential lawns. Principles and practices of mowing, fertilizing, irrigating, and control of weed, disease, and insects. Identification of turfgrass; equipment selection. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: HORT 2303. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

HORT 3503. Sustainable and Organic Horticulture. 3 Hours.

This course will provide a base of knowledge of the principles and practices of sustainable, organic, and alternative horticulture management systems. The class will review and evaluate topics including soil biological processes (compost, humus and fertility), pest management, alternative farming systems, and organic agriculture. After this foundation information is studied, the class will study applications of sustainable agriculture principles to production systems such as greenhouse vegetable production, ornamental production, fruit production, and landscape and turf management. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)

HORT 400V. Special Problems. 1-6 Hour.

Original investigations on assigned problems in horticulture. Prerequisite: Junior standing. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer) May be repeated for up to 6 hours of degree credit.

HORT 401V. Special Topics in Horticulture, Turf or Landscape. 1-6 Hour.

Topics related to horticulture, turfgrass or landscape science or management not covered in other courses or a more intensive study of a specific topic. (Typically offered: Irregular) May be repeated for degree credit.

HORT 402V. Horticulture Judging and Competition Activity. 1-6 Hour.

Training for and participation on horticultural identification, judging and competitive teams. Prerequisite: HORT 2003. (Typically offered: Irregular) May be repeated for up to 6 hours of degree credit.

HORT 4033. Professional Landscape Installation and Construction. 3 Hours.

Principles and practices involved in landscape installation and construction. Topics covered include sequencing construction activities, protecting existing trees, landscape soils, selecting plants, planting and transplanting plant materials, wood construction, cement and masonry construction, and low-voltage lighting. Lecture 3 hours per week. Preparatory training in agribusiness or business is suggested. Prerequisite: HORT 2003. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)

HORT 4043. Professional Landscape Management. 3 Hours.

Principles and practices of landscape management and maintenance. Topics include low maintenance and seasonal color design, pruning and hazard tree management, water and fertilizer management, pesticide use, and other maintenance activities. Basic elements of marketing, specifications and contracts, estimating, personnel management, and equipment selection and acquisition relevant for landscape services will be introduced. Preparatory training in agribusiness or business is suggested. Prerequisite: HORT 2003 and HORT 3103. (Typically offered: Fall Odd Years)

HORT 4103. Fruit Production Science and Technology. 3 Hours.

The management technologies and cultural practices of fruit crops including (but not limited to) blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, grapes, peaches, and apples will be presented. The underlying scientific principles of crop genetics, nutrition, and physiology will be presented as a basis for making management decisions in fruit crop productions. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: HORT 2003. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

HORT 4153. Sustainable Techniques in Urban Horticulture. 3 Hours.

Sustainable Techniques in Urban Horticulture is a practicum based course where the student will learn basic techniques in sustainable production of horticultural crops in an urban or small-scale environment. Crops may include vegetables, cut flowers, or small fruits. This course is intended for students who do not have an agricultural production background or for those students wanting to learn more about the production of high-value horticultural crops under sustainable production systems. (Typically offered: Summer)

HORT 4403. Plant Propagation. 3 Hours.

Principles of plant propagation using seeds, cuttings, grafting, budding, layering, and tissue culture. The physiological basis of propagation is described. Knowledge of plant growth and physiology is needed. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 2 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: HORT 2003. (Typically offered: Spring)

HORT 4403H. Honors Plant Propagation. 3 Hours.

Principles of plant propagation using seeds, cuttings, grafting, budding, layering, and tissue culture. The physiological basis of propagation is described. Knowledge of plant growth and physiology is needed. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 2 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: HORT 2003 and honors standing. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is equivalent to HORT 4403.

HORT 4413. Horticulture Physiology. 3 Hours.

This course provides students with a background into the physiological processes of plants with an emphasis on horticultural crops and how the processes relate to horticultural crop production practices. Among the topics covered are photosynthesis, respiration, water relations and morphogenesis. Prerequisite: HORT 2003 and CHEM 1073. (Typically offered: Spring)

HORT 4503. Sustainable Nursery Production. 3 Hours.

This course addresses issues and practices involved in production of quality woody nursery crops (e.g. trees and shrubs produced in open filed and containerized systems). (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

HORT 4603. Practical Landscape Planning. 3 Hours.

Ornamental planting design and landscape planning concepts. Preparing planting plans, materials sheets, and cost estimates for residential properties. Prerequisite: HORT 3103. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

HORT 462V. Horticulture, Landscape, Turf Sciences Internship Experience. 1-6 Hour.

A supervised practical work experience in a horticulture, landscape design, or turf business or research program to gain professional competence and insight into employment opportunities. Prerequisite: COMM 1313 and HORT 2101. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer) May be repeated for up to 6 hours of degree credit.

HORT 4701L. Greenhouse Management and Controlled Environment Horticulture Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Laboratory involving hands-on experiments designed to demonstrate principles discussed in the lecture section. Includes field trips. Corequisite: HORT 4703. (Typically offered: Fall Odd Years)

HORT 4703. Greenhouse Management and Controlled Environment Horticulture. 3 Hours.

Operation and management of greenhouses and other controlled environments used in horticultural production. Emphasis on system design and construction, control of light intensity and photoperiod, heating and cooling systems, substrates, mineral nutrition, water quality and irrigation systems. Prerequisite: HORT 2003 and CHEM 1073. (Typically offered: Fall)

HORT 472V. Horticulture, Landscape, Turf Sciences Internship Assessment. 1-6 Hour.

The objective of the HORT 472V Internship Assessment is for the student to gain mastery in written and oral communication skills and critical thinking skills by reflection and analysis of ideas, artifacts, and events gained from a prior internship experience. The student is expected to master specific skills in the context, content development, syntax and mechanics and purpose of writing in a visual presentation relating to the internship experience. The student will also master skills in the organization, central message, language, and delivery of an oral presentation related to the internship experience. The student will master critical thinking skills through the explanation of issues, personal perspective, evidence presentation, and conclusions and outcomes related to the internship experience. Prerequisite: HORT 462V. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer)

HORT 4801L. Greenhouse Crops Production Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Laboratory involving hands-on experiments designed to demonstrate principles discussed in the lecture section. Includes field trips. Corequisite: HORT 4803. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

HORT 4803. Greenhouse Crops Production. 3 Hours.

Principles and practices of production and marketing of crops commonly grown in controlled environments including flowering containerized herbaceous species, geophytes, annual and perennial bedding plants, hydroponic vegetables and herbs. Prerequisite: HORT 4703. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

HORT 4903. Golf and Sports Turf Management. 3 Hours.

Turf management techniques for golf courses, and athletic fields including species selection, root-zone construction and modification, fertilization, mowing, irrigation and pest control. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: CSES 2203 and CSES 2201L and (HORT 2303 or HORT 3403). (Typically offered: Fall Odd Years)

HORT 4913. Rootzone Management for Golf and Sports Turf. 3 Hours.

An overview of the fundamental concepts of the physical and chemical properties of rootzones as related to construction and turfgrass management. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: HORT 2303 and CSES 2203. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

HORT 4921. Golf Course Operations. 1 Hour.

This course is designed to cover specific aspects of golf course operations that would not be included in traditional turfgrass management courses. Topics will include budgeting, personnel management, tournament setup and operation, dealing with golf club committees, communication, and other relevant topics related to managing a golf course maintenance operation. Prerequisite: HORT 4903. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)

HORT 4932. Turf Best Management Practices. 2 Hours.

The course covers the impacts of turfgrass management practices on turf quality and the environment. In addition, the identification, biology, and control practices for the major insects, diseases, and weeds that infest turf will be covered. Emphasis will be placed on management strategies that include both chemical and non- chemical approaches to the prevention and control of common turfgrass pests. Prerequisite: HORT 4903. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)